Scientific journals CRFSFS

Author Guidelines


The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) publishes peer-reviewed scientific journals to provide subscribers with high-quality scientific information in the area of food science and technology. The Journal of Food Science (JFS), available with subscription online and/or in print, provides results of original research and short interpretive reviews on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of food science and technology. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (CRFSFS), available online only, free to access, provides in-depth interpretive reviews in these same areas, and in risk analysis. The Journal of Food Science Education (JFSE), available online only, free to access, provides information relevant to those involved in food science education at all levels. 

IFT is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information. 

Scientific Editor: Mary Ellen Camire, University of Maine

Editor-in-Chief: E. Allen Foegeding

CRFSFS publishes in-depth, extended (>10,000 words) reviews that address the following properties of foods:

  • chemistry
  • physics
  • engineering
  • microbiology
  • food safety
  • post-harvest physiology
  • nutritional benefits, particularly with regards to food as eaten and processing effects on nutritional value
  • sensory characteristics and consumer attitudes towards foods
  • genetic modification
  • functionality of food ingredients

Food analytical methods, risk analysis (assessment, management, communication), government regulation, history of food use, or psychological aspects of foods, food packaging, or food processing/storage are also included in the journal. Occasionally, special government and institutional reports are published, as well as symposium proceedings deemed to be comprehensive. Authors are advised to consult the Scientific Editor for the suitability of the topic prior to submission.

Technical Requirements

  • Comprehensive Reviews (submitted to the journal CRFSFS) should be between 10,000 and 25,000 words in the body text and references.
  • If your review is under 10,000 words in the body text + references, please submit it to the Journal of Food Science as a Concise Review.
  • Manuscript text must be double-spaced with continuous line numbering.
  • Use APA Style.
  • All authors’ contributions must be listed in an “Author Contributions” section at the end of the body text. Each author’s contribution must comply with the ICMJE criteria for authorship.
  • Authors must disclose conflicts of interest in a “Conflicts of Interest” section at the end of the body text.
  • Submit to any of IFT’s journals online at

Performance Attributes

  • Data from Journal Citation Reports, 2019 Impact Factor: 9.912; Ranking: 2/139 journals in Food Science & Technology.
  • Acceptance rate (2019): 31.4%
  • Submit-to-1st decision average time: 32 days
  • Submit-to-accept average time: 136 days (includes author revision time)
  • Accept-to-online publication average time: 38 days

Author criteria

Authorship is restricted to those who meet the ICMJE criteria, those who have:

  • Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;
  • AND aided in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  • AND given final approval of the version to be published;
  • AND agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Each author’s primary contribution(s) must be listed at the end of your manuscript. Ghost, guest, honorary, or anonymous authorship is not allowed. Contributors who do not qualify for authorship should be mentioned in the acknowledgments.

We advise against the submission of a manuscript by a single author, particularly those who have not attained their final degree, because multiple authors reviewing the manuscript before submission are more likely to identify mistakes that can easily be addressed. The addition or removal of authors after the initial submission is discouraged and requires consultation with the Scientific Editor.


For CRFSFS, authorship is not restricted. Peer review is the best of all possible quality assurance systems. However, authors relatively new to a field, such as recent graduate students and individuals without prior publications on the subject under review, must have at least one co-author with recognized experience in that area. In addition to the stated requirements for authors, expectations from authors of comprehensive reviews are:

  • Good writing
  • Adherence to the journal's style and format
  • manuscript presentation with double-spaced, line-numbered text
  • interpretation of the references cited so that meaning as well as the data of each are easily understood
  • analysis and summary of important concepts under discussion
  • identification of further research needed on the subject
  • listing references in the required format.

Exclusivity of work

The corresponding author must verify, on behalf of all authors (if more than one), that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content has been published, accepted for publication, or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure the integrity of all submitted works. For further guidance, see the Wiley Publication Ethics Guide.

The editorial staff will check all manuscripts for plagiarism and improperly-cited content with similarity detection software. If sections are found that are (1) the same as in authors’ previous manuscripts (self-plagiarism) or (2) copied from other manuscripts, they will be considered ethical violations and the manuscript will be rejected and author sanctions considered.

Conflicts of interest

Each author must disclose any meaningful affiliation or involvement, direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, patents received or pending, royalties, honoraria, expert testimony) in the past 3 years, or longer if readers might perceive that a potential conflict of interest exists. In the interest of transparency, it is better to err on the side of caution and disclose any perceived conflicts. These kinds of financial involvement are fairly common, unavoidable, and generally do not constitute a basis for rejecting a manuscript. A statement of disclosure should be included in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript, along with a listing of all sources of support for the work, both financial and material. 


Opinions expressed in articles published in an IFT journal are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent opinions of IFT. IFT does not guarantee the appropriateness, for any purpose, of any method, product, process, or device described or identified in an article. Trade names, when used, are only for identification and do not constitute endorsement by IFT.

Authors are expected to adhere to established ethical best practices, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) International Standards for Authors (link to PDF).

All submissions to IFT's journals are screened for overlap with other previously-published materials using iThenticate software. Manuscripts with excessive overlap will be rejected outright after review by editorial staff.

The corresponding author will be asked to digitally sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement on behalf of all authors upon acceptance of the manuscript, transferring copyright to IFT (except in cases where the work cannot be copyrighted, e.g., works authored solely by U.S. government employees as part of their employment duties).

Copyright terms and authors’ rights (PDF)

Reproduction of all or any significant portion of an IFT publication is prohibited unless permission is received from IFT. Authors have the right to reproduce portions of their own papers with proper acknowledgment and retain the right to any patentable subject material that might be contained therein. Authors can obtain permission online through Rightslink, which is an automated online permissions service available 24 hours/day. You can do so by locating the article you want to reuse and clicking on the “Request Permissions” link under the “Article Tools” menu on the abstract page.

More details

Factors considered when judging the suitability of a manuscript for publication are: interest readers will have in the subject; relevance to human foods; originality, scientific quality (including appropriateness of the experimental design and methods, depth of investigation, proper statistical analysis of the data); importance and substance of the results; and the thoroughness and accuracy with which the results are interpreted. IFT membership is not a prerequisite for publication.

There is a 10,000-word minimum and 25,000 word maximum (text plus references) for papers in CRFSFS. Reviews under 10,000 words should be submitted to the JFS "Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science" section.

If your review has original data, we encourage you to share the data and other artifacts supporting the results in the paper by archiving it in an appropriate public repository. Authors should include a data accessibility statement, including a link to the dataset under an additional subhead, entitled "Data Availability", after the Conclusions section. Visit or to help identify registered and certified data repositories relevant to your research.

If the data has not been archived in a public repository, to assist in the review process, the editors may request the original data for review.

All submitted manuscripts are screened by the Scientific Editor for language, importance, interest to subscribers, substance, appropriateness for the journal, unique topic, and general scientific quality. Those failing to meet current standards are rejected by the Scientific Editor without further review. Those manuscripts meeting these initial standards are sent to an Associate Editor, who assigns referees (also called “reviewers”).

  • CRFSFS uses a single-blind review process. Author identities are disclosedvisible to the referees, but referee identities are not disclosed to the author. 
  • Associate Editors strive to obtain three or more referees for each manuscript.
  • In the submission form, authors are asked to recommend the names of two to four experts who are qualified to review the manuscript but who have no personal or professional relationships with the authors and who work at other institutions. Former professors and students should not be suggested as reviewers.
  • For more information about our review policies, see our Reviewer Resources page.
  • It is the policy of CRFSFS to blind Editorial Board members from the peer-review process of their own submissions, just as all authors are blinded. Alternate editors handle submissions made by Editorial Board members to ensure an unbiased review process.

When the initial review is complete, the Associate Editor will send you the referees’ suggestions along with his or her suggestions. You are expected to respond in a cover letter to all suggestions either by making appropriate revisions or stating why the suggestions are unreasonable. The Associate Editor will consider your revisions, and provide the Scientific Editor with a recommendation to accept, revise, or reject your manuscript. Occasionally a peer- reviewer insists on a re-evaluation. If a second revision of a manuscript is still not satisfactory, it may be rejected. You will be informed by the Scientific Editor of the final decision.

To appeal a decision by the Scientific Editor or report problems related to the review process or published journal, please contact the Editor in Chief, E. Allen Foegeding or the Editorial Office (

There are no page charges for IFT Premier, Student, or Emeritus Members. To join IFT to take advantage of this benefit, visit the Membership section of this site.

For non-IFT-members and IFT Networking & Engagement members, page charges of $95 per page are assessed just prior to publication. When payment is possible only from personal funds, and this would impose undue financial hardship, a request for full or partial waiver of this charge may be made, provided this request is made prior to publication. In this instance, a written statement certifying that the author’s employer is unable to pay because of financial distress, and that the author cannot personally pay because this would impose an undue financial burden, signed by both the author and the employer, should be e-mailed to the Editorial Office at

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers upon publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author’s funding agency, or the author’s institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency’s preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

OnlineOpen articles are subject to a Creative Commons license, instead of traditional copyright transfer to IFT.

Prior to acceptance, there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal’s standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

CRFSFS works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Food Science & Nutrition, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Food Science & Nutrition. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Food Science & Nutrition will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Food Science & Nutrition is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information, please go to

Comments, observations, different perspectives, and suggestions for improving concepts and techniques of previously published manuscripts are welcome and accepted. Please e-mail letters for consideration to Scientific Editor Mary Ellen Camire

Language, units of measurement and symbols

Use the English language (American spelling and usage) and the SI system (Système International d’Unités, often referred to as “International Units”) for measurements and units.

Style and format 

Your manuscript should be consistent with APA style, detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition, 2010. Refer to for examples, or contact the Editorial Office ( with questions. 

Page Format

  • Continuous line-numbering for the entire manuscript is mandatory. 
  • Double-space the entire manuscript. 
  • Submitted manuscripts must list full names for all authors; that is, full first/given name(s), middle initial(s), and last/surname(s). 

Failure to comply with these formatting instructions can result in automatic return of the manuscript without review. Try to restrict individual file sizes to 5Mb maximum. Larger files may be hosted, but these can lead to download issues for users. 

A manuscript template in Microsoft® Word is available to help you format your submission.

Table of contents (recommended) 

A listing of major section headers or table of contents helps readers navigate the manuscript. This is not published with the paper, but helps for the review process. 

Title page

  • Enter full title (be concise) Do not use trade names in titles. Do not use abbreviations and acronyms in titles. 
  • Enter name(s) of author(s) and author affiliation(s) with complete address(es). 
  • Provide contact information for the corresponding author, including full name, complete mailing address, phone, fax, and e-mail address. 
  • Enter the word count of the body text, including Abstract and references but not including tables and figures. Word count should be greater than 10,000 words (body text and references). Use double-spacing. 
  • Enter short version of title (less than 40 letters and spaces). 
  • Provide previous address(es) of author(s) if research was conducted at a place different from current affiliation. 


  • Enter “ABSTRACT:” followed by abstract text, preferably not exceeding 250 words; define all acronyms and abbreviations; do not cite references. State in one paragraph basic background, major results, and conclusions. 
  • Upon submission in ScholarOne Manuscripts, you will be asked to provide 5 keywords for indexing purposes. It is highly recommended to choose keywords from our established list in ScholarOne Manuscripts, when possible, to aid in consistency. 


  • Enter introductory text; review pertinent work; cite key references; explain the importance of the topic and the objectives of your work.  

Body text 

  • Topic must be covered in depth and information must be critically evaluated (strengths, weaknesses, discussion of discrepancies in results among similar studies) so that insightful, integrative interpretations and conclusions are achieved. 
  • Abbreviations and acronyms. At first use in the text, use full length form followed by the acronym in parentheses. Use only the acronym for subsequent mentions. 


State conclusions (not a summary or continuing discussion) briefly in one paragraph and without references. 

Data Availability (if applicable)

If you have deposited an original dataset to a repository, link to it in a brief statement here.


List sources of financial or material support and the names of individuals whose contributions were significant but not deserving of authorship. Any conflicts of interest should be entered here. Acknowledgment of an employer’s permission to publish is not needed and will not be published. 

Author Contributions (required) 

List each author’s name and primary contribution(s) to this work. For example, “Yu researched prior studies and interpreted the results. Smith compiled data and drafted the manuscript.” Contributions must be significant enough to meet authorship guidelines as described in the ICMJE definitions of authorship roles. 

Nomenclature (if needed) 

Enter a list of abbreviations used in the manuscript and their definitions. 


Alphabetically list only those references cited in the text. Required format is described below. 


  • Enter one table per page after the references. Be sure you have cited each table within the text. 
  • Enter a short descriptive caption at the top of each table, preceded by an identifying Arabic numeral. 
  • Columns and their headings are normally (but not always) used to display the dependent variable(s) being presented in the table. 
  • Footnotes should be identified by lowercase letters or number (e.g., a, b, c; 1, 2, 3) appearing as superscripts in the body of the table and preceding the footnote below the table. The same data should not appear in both tables and figures. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • Tables including a large amount of data with few significant differences should instead be described in a sentence along with “(data not shown)”. 

Figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and other illustrations) 

General instructions

  • Enter one figure per page after the tables (if any). Be sure you have cited each figure within the text, using Arabic numerals.
  • Enter the figure number and descriptive caption at the bottom of each figure. 
  • You are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted figures. Proof of permission to reproduce is required. 
  • Submit your figures at least twice the size they will appear when published at 300 dots per inch (dpi) or greater. 
  • Be sure to use lettering, data lines, and symbols sufficiently large and thick to be clearly legible when the figure is reduced to the normal published size. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • Avoid redundancy between the figure caption and information in the figure.

Special instructions for graphs 

  • Keep as simple as possible. 
  • Dependent variable should be presented on the vertical axis (y or ordinate). 
  • Independent variable should be presented on the horizontal axis (x or abscissa). 
  • The label for each axis should be parallel to, and centered on, the axis; that is, the label for the vertical axis should be rotated 90° counterclockwise from normal. 
  • Axis labels should be followed by the units of measurement in parentheses, with abbreviations shown elsewhere in these Instructions. 
  • Range of values presented on each axis should be no larger than the range of values being presented. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • If data lines are close together and/or intersect, do not present more than 4 lines per figure. 
  • If data lines are well separated and few or none intersect, a maximum of about 8 lines per figure may be entered. 
  • Identify lines directly, if feasible. If not, enter key box at a blank area inside the graph. 
  • Avoid simultaneous use of a new symbol and a new line style. 
  • Avoid, if possible, presenting more than 8 data bars per figure. 
  • Avoid using shades of gray on bars or lines. 

Appendix (if needed)

Examples are complicated calculations or additional data tables. 

Supplemental materials

Multimedia (audio, video, and animation) files demonstrating important information relevant to the article can be published as supplemental material. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains entirely with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect. 

Manuscripts must follow the name-year reference format specified in APA style, detailed in the Publication Manual of the  Americal Psychological Association, 6th Edition, 2010. Refer to for examples. Cite only necessary publications and use primary rather than secondary references when possible. It is acceptable to cite work that is “forthcoming” (that is, accepted but not yet published) with the pertinent year and, if available, the DOI. Works that are “submitted” and under review are not to be cited.

In text

When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Otherwise, place both the name and the year in parentheses, separated by a comma. If the work has two authors, cite with both names. If the work has three to five authors, cite all authors’ names the first time it is referenced in the text, then cite using the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” each subsequent time. If the work has 6 or more authors, always cite with the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons.


Wlodkowski (2008) showed that…
…was shown (Wlodkowski, 2008).
Walker and Allen (2004) demonstrated…
…was demonstrated (Walker & Allen, 2004).
Liu, Jia, Wu, and Wang (2010) or (Liu, Jia, Wu, & Wang, 2010) [1st mention, <6 authors]; Liu et al. (2010) [subsequent mentions]
Pei et al. (2015) [6+ authors, always cite with “et al.”]
… studies (Lucci & Mazzafera, 2009, 2011) focused…
… work (Dawson, 1999; Briggs, 2004) demonstrated…

In reference section

List only references cited in the text. List references alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). References must be complete, containing the author's initials and all relevant publication data, including DOI whenever possible. In the case of references to papers presented at a meeting, the full title of the paper, when and where it was presented, and the name of the sponsoring society must be given. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, please refer to or contact the Editorial Office.


  • Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn (3rd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass John Wiley & Sons.
  • Yore, L. D. (2004). Why do future scientists need to study the language arts? In E. W. Saul (Ed.), Crossing borders in literacy and science instruction: Perspectives on theory and practice (pp. 71–94). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • Bhatt, T., Gooch, M., Dent, B., & Sylvia, G. (2017). Implementing interoperability in the seafood industry: learning from experiences in other sectors. Journal of Food Science, 82(S1), A22–A44.
  • Pei, L., Ou, Y., Yu, W., Fan, Y., Huang, Y., Lim, J, . . . Lai, K. (2015). Au-Ag core-shell nanospheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of Sudan I and Sudan II in chili powder. Journal of Nanomaterials, 16, 215-221.
  • Abrams, E. M., & Gerstner, T. V. (2015). Allergy to cooked, but not raw, peas: A case series and review. Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology. Advance online publication.

Submitting Your Manuscript

IFT’s journals only accept submissions via our ScholarOne Manuscripts site.

Manuscripts must be submitted in an editable text format (filetype .doc, .docx, or .rtf). Your computer system must be equipped with: (1) current version of a common web browser, (2) current version of Adobe Acrobat Reader, and (3) e-mail capability.

Getting Started

Go to

Create an account or log in. Your default login ID is your email address. (Use your existing account; do not create new accounts with new submissions.)

Create a new submission and select the manuscript type: Comprehensive Review.

Note: This site is within an IFT ScholarOne portal which also includes sites for the Journal of Food Science and Journal of Food Science Education. Your account will work for all 3 journals, and you can navigate between journals using the journal drop-down menu on the home page of each journal's site.

Completing Submission

  • Follow the steps to complete each page in the submission form.
  • Authors should explain in a cover letter to the Scientific Editor why the review of the topic is needed and how it differs from related reviews that have been published or are in press for the past two years.
  • You must add all co-authors in the required space in the submission form. Provide valid e-mail addresses for all co-authors and look up their existing accounts in the system before creating any new accounts.
  • Figures (with captions) and tables (with captions) should be inserted at the end, after the references.
  • To assist in the review process, the SE, AE, or reviewer may request the author to submit the original data.
  • When prompted to do so, please provide the names, titles, and contact information (affiliations and e-mail addresses) for 2 to 4 individuals you consider appropriate referees for your manuscript. Non-preferred referees may also be named.
  • The final step to submit requires that you review your PDF submission. Please check that all of your files appear and are in the correct order.
  • Checking on the Status of Your Manuscript
    During the review process, the submitting author may track the progress of his/her manuscript at any time by logging onto ScholarOne Manuscripts (

After acceptance, the corresponding author will receive further information on copyright transfer and tracking production of your paper through Wiley Author Services.

We will use the accepted files on ScholarOne Manuscripts for production. If you need to make final edits suggested by the editor, please e-mail a final file as soon as possible to, or you may make those edits at the proofing stage. Label all electronic files or hard-copy figures with the assigned manuscript ID number and figure numbers.

A few weeks after production of your manuscript begins, you will receive a PDF proof via e-mail so you can make any final minor corrections. You are responsible for all statements appearing in the page proof. If you are not available to review the page proof, you should authorize someone else to carefully study the page proof for errors.


If you encounter difficulties in submitting your manuscript to ScholarOne Manuscripts, or for any other queries, contact the editorial office at:

Office phone: +1.312.806.0246
Mobile: +1.312.806.8088

Reviewer Resources

Interested in becoming a reviewer for IFT's one of IFT's premier peer-reviewed journals?

Learn More

Instructional Videos

Access these helpful videos providing you guidance on how to publish in IFT's journals.

View Videos

More from IFT

Latest News right arrow

Nespresso to expand its production center in Switzerland

Nespresso has announced a CHF 160 million (approximately $170.5 million) investment to expand its Romont production center in Switzerland to meet increasing consumer demand for its premium coffees and support international development in the coming years.

BlueNalu, Pulmuone partner to bring cell-based seafood to South Korea

BlueNalu, a food technology company developing cell-based seafood products, has announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Pulmuone, a maker of healthy and environmentally friendly food products headquartered in South Korea.

Targeted taxes, school lunch policies may benefit low-income populations

Targeted taxes on sweetened beverages and policies that strengthen nutritional standards for meals and beverages at schools may be effective tools for decreasing the purchase of sweetened drinks and reducing obesity among children living in poverty, according to two studies.

FAO predicts a global shortage of protein-rich foods

According to the Cornell Alliance for Science, a new report out from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations predicts there will be a global shortage of protein-rich foods this year due to COVID-19 and other factors.

FAO director-general proposes a new structure to make agency more agile and efficient

The director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Qu Dongyu, presented to the FAO Council a second set of measures to reform the UN agency.

Upcoming Events right arrow

NYIFT Suppliers Day and Career Fair

Secaucus, New Jersey, United States

NEIFT Food Industry Expo

Worcester, Massachusetts, United States

Latest from IFT Scientific Journals right arrow

Effects of brew strength, brew yield, and roast on the sensory quality of drip brewed coffee

Drip brewed coffee is traditionally quantified in terms of its strength, also known as total dissolved solids (TDS), and its brewing yield, also known as percent extraction (PE). Early work in the 1950s yielded classifications of certain regimes of TDS and PE as “underdeveloped,” “bitter,” or “ideal,” with the modifiers “weak” or “strong” simply correlated with TDS. Although this standard is still widely used today, it omits a rich variety of sensory attributes perceptible in coffee. In this work, we used response surface methodology to evaluate the influence of TDS and PE on the sensory profile of drip brewed coffee. A representative wet‐washed Arabica coffee was roasted to three different levels (light, medium, or dark), with each roast then brewed to nine target brews that varied systematically by TDS and PE. Descriptive analysis found that 21 of the 30 evaluated attributes differed significantly across the brews for one or more experimental factors, yielding linear or second‐order response surfaces versus TDS and PE. Seven attributes exhibited a significant response surface for all three roast levels tested: burnt wood/ash flavor , citrus flavor , sourness , bitterness , sweetness , thickness , and flavor persistence . An additional seven attributes also showed a significant response surface fit across some but not all roasts. Importantly, sweetness exhibited an inverse correlation with TDS irrespective of roast, while dark chocolate flavor and blueberry flavor decreased with TDS for medium roast. These results provide new insight on how to optimize brewing conditions to achieve desired sensory profiles in drip brewed coffee.

Effects of chitosan grafted phenolic acid coating on microbiological, physicochemical and protein changes of sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) during refrigerated storage

This project aimed to evaluate the effects of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PA) grafted onto chitosan (CS) on the improved quality of sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus ) during refrigerated storage. The incorporation of GA and PA onto CS (CS‐g‐GA and CS‐g‐PA) were achieved by the carbodiimide‐mediated grafting procedure. Samples were treated with different solutions (deionized water [CK], 1% CS [m/v], 1% CS‐g‐GA [m/v], and 1% CS‐g‐PA [m/v]) for 10 min, which were then stored at 4 °C. Microbiological quality, including total viable counts (TVC), psychrophilic bacterial counts (PBC), Pseudomonas bacterial counts, and H2S‐producing bacterial counts were measured. Physicochemical parameters, including pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, water holding capacity (WHC), and K value, were measured. The changes in protein characteristics, including sulfhydryl groups (SH), Ca2+‐ATPase activity, sodium dodecyl sulfate‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE), and tertiary structure of protein were analyzed periodically, along with texture profile analysis (TPA). The results demonstrated that the CS copolymers treatment exhibited better preservation effects. The CS‐g‐GA and CS‐g‐PA treatments could significantly inhibit the growth of microorganisms and retard the increase of pH, TVB‐N, TBA, WHC, and K‐value during refrigerated storage compared with the CK and CS groups. Additionally, the CS‐g‐GA and CS‐g‐PA treatments could delay the protein oxidation by keeping a higher SH level and Ca2+‐ATPase activity. The CS copolymers treatment could also extend the shelf life for another 6 days compared with that of CK. As a result, CS copolymers can be employed in a promising method for the preservation of sea bass.

Use of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves as beer ingredient, and their influence on beer chemical composition and antioxidant activity

Olive leaves are well known for their high polyphenol content and beneficial effects to human health. The two main phenolic compounds of olive leaves are oleuropein and 3‐hydroxytyrosol. Use of olive leaves as beer ingredient was evaluated, to investigate their contribution to bitterness and antioxidant activity of beer. Thirteen beer samples were produced, adding olive leaves during boiling at different boiling times, in different forms and concentrations. Three different forms were used: dry crumbled leaves, infusion, and atomized extract. The effects of olive leaves addition were evaluated through following analysis: total polyphenols content, oleuropein and 3‐hydroxytyrosol content, antioxidant capacity, sensory analysis, shelf‐life prediction. Results confirmed that addition of olive leaves highly increased polyphenol content of beers. Boiling time favored hydrolysis of oleuropein to 3‐hydroxytyrosol. Antioxidant activity was not influenced by addition of olive leaves. Higher polyphenol content of beer samples increased colloidal instability of beer. Sensory analysis results demonstrated that about 10 g/L of olive leaves imparts a sour/astringent taste and herbal aroma. A lower quantity of olive leaves (about 5 g/L) allowed to obtain a beer with a pleasant sensory profile.

A new classification criterion for the biofilm formation index: A study of the biofilm dynamics of pathogenic Vibrio species isolated from seafood and food contact surfaces

The bacterial biofilm formation index (BFI) is measured by a microtiter plate assay, and it is typically performed at 72 hr. However, the dynamics of biopolymer formation change during this incubation period. The aims of this study were to follow the biofilm formation dynamics of Vibrio strains isolated from samples of seafood and food contact surfaces (FCS) and to propose a new BFI classification criterion. Samples from seafood (136) and FCS (14) were collected from retail markets in Queretaro, Mexico. The presence of Vibrio spp. was determined, the strains were isolated, and the six major pathogenic species (V. cholerae, V. alginolyticus , V. fluvialis , V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus ) were identified by PCR. The BFI of the isolates was determined by the microtiter plate method. Fifty‐one strains were isolated and identified as V. alginolytivcus (25), V. vulnificus (12), V. cholerae (7), V. parahaemolyticus (6), and V. mimicus (1). A quantitative classification criterion of biofilm formation was proposed based on the following factors: BFI dynamics (no formation, continuous increase, and increase followed by decrease), time of maximum BFI (early: 24 hr; late: 48 to 72 hr), and degree of BFI (none, weak, moderate, and strong). A numerical value was assigned to each factor to correlate the resulting BFI profile with a risk level. Thirteen BFI profiles were observed, having risk level values from 0 to 10. Vibrio alginolyticus, V . cholerae , and V. vulnificus showed the highest BFI profile diversities, which included the riskiest profiles. The proposed BFI criterion describes the dynamics of bacterial biopolymer formation and associates them with the possible risk implications.

Contribution of the retronasal odor of soy sauce to salt reduction

The characteristic odor of soy sauce has been reported to enhance saltiness. However, soy sauce is used not only as a sauce that is added directly to food, but also as a seasoning. In addition, some of the aromatic compounds that contribute to the soy sauce odor change during cooking or heating. In the present study, the effects of the retronasal odor of uncooked and cooked soy sauce on the enhancement of saltiness and palatability of a low‐salt solution were sensory evaluated. A probit analysis indicated that the saltiness‐enhancing effect of the odor of 15% uncooked soy sauce was lost by heating. The odors of soy sauce boiled for 10 min (cooked SS) and the residue of soy sauce heated at 200 °C for 1 min improved the palatability of the low‐salt solution. Gas chromatography (GC) analyses, namely, GC–olfactometry and GC–mass spectrometry, showed that one active candidate aromatic component of soy sauce contributing to saltiness enhancement was 3‐methyl‐1‐butanol (3‐Me‐BuOH). The saltiness‐enhancing effects of cooked SS could be restored by adding 3‐Me‐BuOH, as assessed by the sensory evaluation. These data demonstrated that 3‐Me‐BuOH contributes to saltiness enhancement.